什麽是批判性思維?

什麽是批判性思維?


What is critical thinking

Critical thinking is reflective reasoning about beliefs and actions. It is a way of deciding whether a claim is always true, sometimes true, partly true, or false. Critical thinking can be traced in Western thought to the Socratic method of Ancient Greece and, in the East, to the Buddhist kalama sutta andAbhidharma. Critical thinking is an important component of most professions. It is a part of formal education and is increasingly significant as students progress through university to graduate education, although there is debate among educators about its precise meaning and scope.

No one always acts purely objectively and rationally. We connive for selfish interests. We gossip, boast, exaggerate, and equivocate. It is “only human" to wish to validate our prior knowledge, to vindicate our prior decisions, or to sustain our earlier beliefs. In the process of satisfying our ego, however, we can often deny ourselves intellectual growth and opportunity. We may not always want to apply critical thinking skills, but we should have those skills available to be employed when needed.

Critical thinking includes a complex combination of skills. Among the main characteristics are the following:

Rationality

We are thinking critically when we

rely on reason rather than emotion,
require evidence, ignore no known evidence, and follow evidence where it leads, and
are concerned more with finding the best explanation than being right analyzing apparent confusion and asking questions.

Self-awareness

We are thinking critically when we

weigh the influences of motives and bias, and
recognize our own assumptions, prejudices, biases, or point of view.

Honesty

We are thinking critically when we recognize emotional impulses, selfish motives, nefarious purposes, or other modes of self-deception.
Open-mindedness
We are thinking critically when we

evaluate all reasonable inferences
consider a variety of possible viewpoints or perspectives,
remain open to alternative interpretations
accept a new explanation, model, or paradigm because it explains the evidence better, is simpler, or has fewer inconsistencies or covers more data
accept new priorities in response to a reevaluation of the evidence or reassessment of our real interests, and
do not reject unpopular views out of hand.

Discipline

We are thinking critically when we

are precise, meticulous, comprehensive, and exhaustive
resist manipulation and irrational appeals, and
avoid snap judgments.

Judgment

We are thinking critically when we

recognize the relevance and/or merit of alternative assumptions and perspectives
recognize the extent and weight of evidence

In sum,

Critical thinkers are by nature skeptical. They approach texts with the same skepticism and suspicion as they approach spoken remarks.
Critical thinkers are active, not passive. They ask questions and analyze. They consciously apply tactics and strategies to uncover meaning or assure their understanding.
Critical thinkers do not take an egotistical view of the world. They are open to new ideas and perspectives. They are willing to challenge their beliefs and investigate competing evidence.

Critical thinking enables us to recognize a wide range of subjective analyses of otherwise objective data, and to evaluate how well each analysis might meet our needs. Facts may be facts, but how we interpret them may vary.

By contrast, passive, non-critical thinkers take a simplistic view of the world.

They see things in black and white, as either-or, rather than recognizing a variety of possible understanding.
They see questions as yes or no with no subtleties.
They fail to see linkages and complexities.
They fail to recognize related elements.

Non-critical thinkers take an egotistical view of the world

They take their facts as the only relevant ones.
They take their own perspective as the only sensible one.
They take their goal as the only valid one.

Source:criticalreading.com